The Japanese auto industry has responded by building assembly plants or “transplants” in the United States (particularly in the southern states of the United States, where there are right-to-labor laws, unlike Rust Belt countries with established unions) to produce mass vehicles. Some Japanese manufacturers that had their graft assembly plants in the Rust Belt, like Mazda.B. Mitsubishi, had to enter into a joint venture with a Big Three manufacturer (Chrysler/Mitsubishi, which became Diamond Star Motors, Ford/Mazda, which became AutoAlliance International). GM founded NUMMI, which was initially a joint venture with Toyota, which then grew to a Canadian subsidiary (CAMI) – a GM/Suzuki that was consolidated and became a geographic division in the United States (its Canadian counterparts, Passport and Asuna, were ephemeral – Isuzu-autos produced during this period were sold in captivity). The Japanese Big Threes (Honda, Toyota and Nissan) have also started exporting larger and more expensive cars (soon among their newly created luxury brands like Acura, Lexus and Infiniti – luxury brands have detached themselves from their mass-marketed parent brand) to earn more money with a limited number of cars. The anti-competitive effect makes the situation even worse. There are many types and varieties of steel, with different companies specializing in different products. Given the VER`s obligation to form an agreement, exporters now have the option of limiting trade in their special products below their quota level if they are able to increase their profits. Of course, steel companies in the import country will increase their prices even further, causing more harm to consumers. The impact of the VER on the well-being of the world.
The impact on global well-being is determined by summarizing the effects of national well-being on importing and exporting countries. The fact that the benefit of the terms of trade for the importer corresponds to the terms of trade for the exporter reduces the global welfare effect to four components: the negative distortion of the importer`s production (B), the negative distortion of the importer`s consumption (D), the negative distortion of the exporter`s consumption (f) and the negative distortion of the exporter`s production (h). As everyone is negative, the global welfare effect of the VER is negative. The sum of the losses in the world exceeds the sum of the gains. In other words, we can say that a VER leads to a reduction in the global efficiency of production and consumption. The impact of the worm on consumers in the exporting country. Consumers of the product in the export country are experiencing an improvement in well-being thanks to the VER. Lower market prices increase consumer surpluses in the market. Voluntary export restrictions fall into the broad category of non-tariff barriers, such as quotas, sanctions taxes, embargoes and other restrictions. As a general rule, VERs are the result of a request from the importing country to grant a protection premium to its domestic companies that manufacture competing products, while these agreements can also be concluded at the sectoral level. There are ways to avoid a VER by a company.
For example, the exporting country`s company can still build a production site in the country where exports are directed. In this way the company is no longer obliged to export goods and should not be linked to the country`s VER. Some examples of VERs appeared in Japanese automotive exports in the early 1980s and in textile exports in the 1950s and 1960s. VER effects on the exporting country`s producers.