In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   There is rarely a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some main reasons why the agreement is so important: the Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and which must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  The Paris Agreement, marked by the historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a framework favourable to climate change and sustainable development, but also to efforts to revise the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP.
This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Define each state`s national contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges signatory states to establish a contribution plan, implement it and raise amounts every five years. Civil society`s participation in the negotiation process through the action programme adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed at a high level to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of developed countries to contribute up to $100 billion a year from 2020. This funding should give priority to the states most affected by the effects of climate change. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement.
The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets.