Sykes Picot Agreement And The Kurds

Following the Sazonov Paleologist Agreement, Russia should also benefit from Western Armenia alongside Constantinople and the Turkish Strait, already promised under the 1915 Constantinople Agreement. [8] Italy was closed to the Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Convention in 1917 and received South Anatolia. [8] The Palestinian region, whose territory is smaller than later compulsory Palestine, should be under “international administration.” The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Agreement took place during the First World War and aimed at other objectives in the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and was part of a series of secret agreements that reflected on its partition. The first negotiations that led to the agreement took place between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, during which British and French diplomats Mark Sykes and Fran├žois Georges-Picot signed an agreed memorandum. [3] The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. [4] For me, Sykes-Picot`s historical decisions have had serious personal consequences. Like most Kurds, I have suffered from the consequences of the Sykes-Picot agreement. I was a refugee three times when I was 11. My city of Halabja was gassed by the former Iraqi government, while I lost many members of my family and thousands of others who perished. In addition to the Halabja attack, an estimated 180,000 other Kurds were buried alive in the Iraqi deserts, 8,000 Kurds in the Barzan region were massacred and about 4,000 Kurdish villages were flattened in the 1980s.

The imposition of European “nation states” in the Middle East has led to societies deeply divided because of the straight lines drawn on tribal areas, on the map annexed to the 1916 agreement between Great Britain and France in Asia Minor , also known as the Sykes Picot Agreement. In his doctoral thesis, Gibson discussed the role of oil in British strategic thinking at the time and mentioned Vilayet Mosul as France`s largest potential oil field in 1918 to accept its accession to the mandate of Iraq (the Clemenceau Lloyd George Agreement) in exchange for “some of the oil and British support elsewhere.” [53] At a meeting in a railway car in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, On 19 April 1917, an interim agreement was reached between british and French Prime Ministers David Lloyd George and Alexandre Ribot, the Italian Prime Minister and Foreign Ministers Paolo Boselli and Sidney Sonnino, in order to respond to Italian interest in the Ottoman Empire, in particular Article 9 of the Treaty of London. [38] The agreement was necessary by the Allies to secure the position of the Italian armed forces in the Middle East. His foreign policy adviser, Edward House, was then informed of the agreement by the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, who, 18 months later, was to give his name to a statement that would have even more fatal consequences for the region. In addition, in a sign of British discontent with Sykes-Picot, Sykes wrote in August a “Memorandum on the Asia Minor Agreement” to support his renegotiation, to make the French understand that they “are doing a good job, that is, they should change their policy if they cannot make military efforts consistent with their policies.”