Painful Experience Central To Work Agreement

In his overview of optimism and analgesic literature published in 2000 [18], Garafalo suggested that the limited amount of research conducted on the positive effects of optimism on pain was convincing, but too tentative to make meaningful generalizations. Finally, he said the role of optimism as a protective factor in the experience of pain needed further study. As can be seen in this review, several studies have investigated the relationship between optimism and pain in clinical and laboratory settings, with the dominant result being that optimism appears to benefit the experience of pain and its treatment. Figure 1 provides a simplified and functional conceptual model, which describes both direct and indirect pathways through which optimism can contribute to the experience of pain. In the future, people who treat and explore pain will need to be more mindful of the role of positive psychological factors such as optimism in the experience of pain. Determining how best to translate current empirical results in terms of optimism with pain experience into improved clinical practice is an important effort. A general limitation of laboratory-based research, which has so far investigated the effects of optimism on pain sensitivity, is the correlation of data. This is due to the fact that the construction of optimism has historically been measured as a disposition with self-report questionnaires such as the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) [8]. The LOT-R consists of a number of declarations (e.g.B. I am always optimistic about my future, I rarely count among the good things that happen to me), to which people indicate their approval or rejection on a multi-step scale. This is not to say that the use of LOT-R is unfounded, as LOT-R has allowed researchers to better understand the role of optimism in terms of pain and, more broadly, health.

However, without direct experimental manipulation of optimism, it is difficult to draw causal conclusions about the effects of optimism on pain sensitivity. A manipulation of optimism called “the best possible self” (BPS), a positive technique of thinking and visual language to come, was developed and proved to be an effective way to generate optimism by increasing the expectation of positive future events [45*]. For more information on bpS manipulation, readers are referred to the work of Peters and colleagues [46]. A recent Dutch study took healthy volunteers and randomized them either to BPS manipulation or to a control condition, then subjected them all to the task of cold pressing [47**]. The results of this study showed that manipulation of BPS was significantly associated with increased optimism about the control condition, and that this induced optimism was associated with lower assessments of pain intensity during CPT. . . .