Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA entered into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labor rules. The coronavirus could also complicate implementation, as manufacturers will adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA by 385 votes (Democrats 193, Republicans 192) to 41 (Democrats 38, Republicans 2, Independents 1).   On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democrats 8, Republicans 1, Independents 1) and the bill was submitted to the White House for Donald Trump`s signature.  On the 29th Trump signed the agreement in force on January 1, 2020 (Public Law No: 116-113).  It formally amended NAFTA, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended,” so that if the parties did not renew or renew it within 6 years, the free trade agreement would become law.   Trade policy is a topic that does not necessarily come to mind when thinking about the FDA. But in fact, there are two reasons why the FDA closely follows trade policy: to protect our rules and authorities and to use trade agreements as a vehicle to promote public health.
The Canada-Mexico-U.S. trade agreement will officially enter into force on July 1. Sectoral chapters, including Chapter 12, relating to FDA-regulated products were not included in most previous trade agreements, including NAFTA. Therefore, the inclusion of these annexes by the USMCA is an innovation not only in U.S. trade policy, but also for international public health. On December 10, 2019, a revised USMCA agreement was concluded by the three countries. On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Implementation Act in the House of Commons and passed first reading without a recorded vote. On February 6, the bill was passed in the House of Commons by a vote of 275 to 28 at second reading, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties, and was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade.
   On February 27, 2020, the committee voted to refer the bill back to the plenary for third reading, without amendment. Growing objections within Member States to US trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signature and ratification process. Mexico said they would not sign the USMCA if tariffs on steel and aluminum were maintained.  Based on U.S. results of November 6, 2018. . . .